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2406, 2021

What I did at the ICBEN meeting last week

June 24th, 2021|

Image credit: ICBEN

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

When I was a child, one of the standard assignments in September was to write an essay about what we did during the summer. This blog post is a faint echo of that, reporting on my experience attending the 13th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise.

The meeting was unfortunately a Zoom meeting, taking the place of last year’s cancelled meeting in Stockholm. The advantage of a virtual meeting is that one doesn’t have to travel, and costs are less because of that, but that’s about all. I miss the informal contacts with other attendees which is where connections are formed, and the real work of the meeting happens.

There is a 9 hour time difference between Stockholm, on Central European Summer Time, and Los Angeles. Being at the computer at 2:45 a.m. for the morning sessions nominally in Stockholm was not fun and led to jet lag even though I didn’t leave home. But I learned a lot from attending the meeting, from the world’s experts.

I also presented 3 papers, one of which caught the attention of ICBEN’s incoming president, Mark Brink, PhD, from Switzerland. That was

2306, 2021

Noisy classrooms not conducive to learning

June 23rd, 2021|

Photo credit: Max Fischer from Pexels

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

Over forty years ago I conducted a study that demonstrated that children in classrooms located near elevated subway tracks in Upper Manhattan, who were exposed to train noise from passing trains every four and a half minutes, did more poorly on reading tests than students in the classrooms on the quiet side of the building. When the Transit Authority installed rubber resilient pads on the tracks and the Board of Education installed sound absorbing ceilings in the classrooms, these noise abatement techniques led to an improvement in reading scores. Research following these two studies, as noted in the Acoustic Bulletin article, have indeed found that noisy classrooms are not conducive to learning.

The article lets readers know that new teaching techniques adopted as a result of employing new educational approaches, classroom design, and advanced technological tools, may result in a noisier classroom environment. Although the article acknowledges that national and international guidelines and standards have been applied to newly built and refurbished classrooms, “an entire rethink of how classrooms are deigned may be necessary in order to really

2206, 2021

Hearing Health Foundation talks about prevention of noise-induced hearing loss

June 22nd, 2021|

Photo credit: Marcelo Chagas from Pexels

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Our friends at Hearing Health Foundation, the nation’s largest nonprofit funder of hearing research, have informed us about their new public advertising campaign to let commuters–especially young people–know that playing music too loud on personal listening devices, also called personal audio systems or personal music players, can cause permanent hearing damage.

The Keep Listening campaign responds to the global hearing loss emergency and promotes healthy hearing habits for life. The outdoor ads and accompanying 30-second “Grenades” video were created by the award-winning Chicago creative agency The Escape Pod.

We welcome Hearing Health Foundation to efforts by the Quiet Coalition and other groups, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Ear Peace Save Your Hearing Foundation, to educate the public about the dangers of loud noise for hearing.

I advise people to follow a simple rule: if it sounds loud, it’s too loud and your hearing is at risk.

Increase the distance from the sound source, leave the noisy environment, or insert ear plugs.

And if you listen to music or podcasts or books on tape, keep the volume down.

It’s as simple as that!

2106, 2021

Study shows birds and bats avoid loud sounds

June 21st, 2021|

Photo credit: jlh_lunasea licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

A Boise State University study found that birds and bats avoid noisy areas and this includes natural loud sounds as well. In this study, birds and bats were exposed to fake, loud whitewater rapids. Jesse Barber, one of the study’s researchers, concluded that “[i]n the end, what we found was that…many animals can’t adapt to the noise, and that’s whether it’s from a highway or it’s from a river.”

Sophia Charan, The Idaho Statesman, says that we can also hypothesize that these animals very likely cannot adapt to the noises created by humans, e.g. screeching cars. This latter statement is underscored by the number of articles that have noted that during the height of the COVID pandemic, with the drop in decibel levels, many people claimed to see and hear more birds. The same could be said of whales and dolphins in the water.

How do animals who have had many years to adapt to naturally loud sounds behave when exposed to these loud sounds? According to Charan they adapt

1706, 2021

Drones a threat to everything below them

June 17th, 2021|

Photo credit: Marco Verch Professional Photographer licensed under CC BY 2.0

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

The skies are already filled with airplanes and helicopters and the residents on the ground can attest to the amount of noise emanating from these aircraft that have intruded upon their health and well-being. Safety is also a factor with respect to aircraft, however, and now, with the increase in drones and electric vertical takeoff and landing vehicles, we can expect the skies to be even more crowded and potentially more dangerous to those on the ground.

In the article “1,500 Eggs Waiting to Hatch. Then a Drone Crashed,” Michael Levenson writes about the crash of a drone on the nesting ground of of “elegant terns,” resulting in 2,500 terns being scared away and 1,500 eggs being abandoned. Melissa Loebl, an environmental scientist and manager of the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, said that in her 20 years of working with wildlife she has “never seen such devastation.” She adds that drones were prohibited in the reserve under California rules, but she

1606, 2021

Personal audio system use is bad for your ears

June 16th, 2021|

Photo credit: Zen Chung from Pexels

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

On June 10, our noise colleague Jan Mayes presented a paper at the 180th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America titled “Personal Audio System Use Can Harm Auditory Health.” I was co-author, and participated in a press conference organized by the ASA before her presentation. This News Medical article is our first media coverage from that press conference, in a UK medical news website. This Healthline mention is our second. We hope there will be more.

The reporter gets the facts exactly right. Personal audiosystem use is bad for your ears. Personal audio systems, also called personal listening devices or personal music players, are a sound content source and headphones or earbuds, so the user can listen to music or podcasts or books on tape without disturbing others.

MP3 players and smartphones are examples of PAS, but sometimes they have video capabilities as well, such as tablet devices. PAS use is widespread, especially among young people, who listen at high volumes many days a week for hours each day.

The result is auditory damage–hearing loss and tinnitus–in young people, already found in anecdotal reports from audiologists

1506, 2021

Noise cameras to the rescue?

June 15th, 2021|

Photo credit: Dave Dugdale licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

State Senator Andrew Gounardes has introduced state legislation that would increase the fine for modifying vehicle mufflers from $150 to $1,000. Senator Gounardes’ bill would also provide police cars with decibel readers to enforce this legislation which also states specific sound levels that cannot be exceeded. This legislation is in response to the number of complaints that have come from New York City residents who have lost sleep because of the “loud dirt bikes and drag racing well into the night.” This legislation is known as SLEEP which stands for Stop Loud and Excessive Exhaust Pollution.

Having seen that cities such as Taiwan and London have also introduced pilot programs involving noise cameras to their streets to deter loud driving, Gounardes would like to add a noise camera pilot program to his legislation. He then says that this pilot program would be properly evaluated to determine whether it would be an effective tool in lessening vehicle loudness. The article points out that speed cameras, to which this noise cameras program

1406, 2021

3 ear pathologies cause difficulty understanding speech in a noisy environment

June 14th, 2021|

Photo credit: Maurício Mascaro from Pexels

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

The “speech in noise” or “hearing in noise” problem is one that has long bedeviled both middle-aged people and their audiologists and physicians. Many people in mid-to-late life complain that they can’t follow one conversation among many in a noisy environment, such as a restaurant. But when their hearing is tested, the audiogram is normal. What’s the problem?

This paper in The Hearing Journal reports on a recent research study in the scientific journal Hearing Research. That research found that hearing in noise difficulty was caused by three different ear pathologies: outer hair cell damage in the cochlea, damage to the nerve synapses in the cochlea, and auditory nerve dysfunction.

I don’t understand the details of audiology testing, but one thing I have learned since I became a noise activist is how delicate our ears are, and how bad noise is for them. You don’t need to know or understand the details of the research. All you need to know is that noise damages your hearing, just like sun damages your skin.

If something sounds loud, it’s too loud, and your hearing is at risk.

Turn down the volume,

1106, 2021

Do we need to relearn how to converse in noisy places?

June 11th, 2021|

Photo credit: Lorenzo Messina from Pexels

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

One of the benefits of the COVID-19 lockdowns was that the world became quieter. That included restaurant noise.

In most parts of the world, when restaurants reopened, it was outdoor dining only. As the pandemic subsided further, indoor dining was allowed, but only at reduced capacities. Servers wore masks. Sound was subdued. Ambient noise levels were down.

Fortunately, at least in the U.S., the COVID lockdowns are history in most states and things are reopening or have already reopened. That means more noise, in the skies, in streets, and in restaurants.

This report in the London Free Press suggests that listening training may help us better follow one conversation among many in a noisy environment.

I would much rather the efforts be spent in making restaurants quieter, not in trying to learn to hear better in a noisy environment.

1006, 2021

Underground announcements bombard Tube riders

June 10th, 2021|

Photo credit: Kira Gallagher licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

John Stewart, lead author of our book “Why Noise Matters,” has long been an advocate for a quieter society. He has been most supportive of London’s transport system but lately while riding the Underground, he told me, he found he was being overwhelmed by loud sounds, e.g. platform announcements. He also noted that the announcements were made much too frequently and believed these were in excess of the requirements of the disability legislation.

In New York City, legislation has been introduced by several state legislators to monitor the sound levels of our subway system, but this legislation is focusing on elevated and underground noises such as squeaky wheels and screeches as the trains round curves. It is these noises that have yielded complaints from residents who live near elevated trains, as well as those who travel the system. These are also the noises that I have studied and written about.

After being exposed to the loud and frequent announcements on London Transport, John Stewart decided to conduct a

906, 2021

People can learn echolocation in just 10 weeks

June 9th, 2021|

Photo credit: Michael Pennay licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This fascinating report in Smithsonian Magazine reports on a study showing that people can learn to echolocate just like bats do. Of course, people can’t do it as well as bats, but whether we can see or not, we can learn this skill to help us navigate our environment.

The researchers speculate that this skill might be useful for those with degenerative visual conditions, who might be able to learn to echolocate while they still have vision.

Not commented on in the research report or the Smithsonian article is one of the requirements for echolocation, by both bats and humans: ambient noise levels have to be low enough to hear the echoes.

Probably best not to try this out in New York City.

806, 2021

Noise takes on growing importance in NYC mayor’s race

June 8th, 2021|

Photo credit: Vova Krasilnikov from Pexels

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

The New York Times in a recent column on New York City mayor’s race notes that “quality-of-life issues take on growing importance,” concluding that it is likely that this issue “will be a growing focus in the final stretch of the race.” This article reports on mayoral candidate Scott Stringer’s proposal, named “Hear Our Noise Complaints,” which is aimed at banning nonessential helicopter flights and curbing noisy dirt bikes that have taken over many of New York City’s streets recently. Candidate Ray McGuire has stated that he has a plan to go after illegal fireworks. And Eric Adams said he would “crack down on dirt bikes,” acknowledging that bikes are not only loud, but they are also dangerous. The candidates, says the New York Times, know that quality of life issues are related to safety as well.

For New Yorkers, quality of life issues, especially noise, are already a focus. That is why community groups, such as Stop the Chop NY/NJ, WaHi-Inwood Noise Task Force, and Washington Heights and Inwood for Respectful Decibel Levels, have partnered with state legislators, State

706, 2021

Mountain Brook, Alabama is the 1st AGZA Green Zone in the Southern U.S.

June 7th, 2021|

by Jamie L. Banks, PhD, MS, Executive Director, Quiet Communities, Inc., Co-Founder, The Quiet Coalition

The City of Mountain Brook will be the first city in the state of Alabama and the first in the south to receive AGZA Green Zone Certifications for Crestline Village, English Village, Mountain Brook Village, and Overton Park. A celebration on June 7th will be held to present the certifications to Mayor Welch and the City Council in the City Council Chambers.

An AGZA Green Zone is a defined area of land on which all routine maintenance is performed with battery electric equipment or manual tools. The minimal requirements for an AGZA Certified Green Zone are the complete elimination of two-stroke equipment used for routine maintenance. Gas blower concessions are made for heavier and seasonal workloads.

The transition away from fossil fuel equipment creates a cleaner, quieter, and healthier environment for workers, visitors, and residents by reducing toxic and carcinogenic emissions, noise, greenhouse gases, fuel spillage, and waste.

 

406, 2021

Bose launches direct-to-consumer sound control hearing aid

June 4th, 2021|

Photo courtesy of Bose

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

Fierce Technology reports on Bose’s launch of its direct-to-consumer sound control hearing aid. This technically isn’t a hearing aid within the federal regulatory scheme, and appears to be placed, both in terms of price and technology, somewhere between traditional hearing aids and newer personal sound amplification products.

Many see great progress in PSAPs and other technologies, e.g., Bluetooth type technologies, to help those with hearing loss hear better.

We’ll have to see if these live up to their promise. A major problem with traditional hearing aids is that many users complain about not being able to understand speech better in noisy environments, and it’s not clear if these newer devices will solve that problem.

I think it’s much better to preserve one’s hearing by avoiding loud noise, or using hearing protection if one can’t escape the noise. That’s what I do, and that’s what I recommend for everyone.

Because if something sounds too loud, it is too loud, and one’s auditory health is at risk.

306, 2021

Outdoor eating and neighbor noise complaints

June 3rd, 2021|

Photo credit: Eden, Janine and Jim licnsed under CC BY 2.0

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

Recognizing the difficulties restaurants faced during this horrific pandemic, New York City has provided increased outside dining spaces for these restaurants. Mayor Bill de Blasio has stated that “[t]he success of our neighborhood establishments is central to our entire city’s success.” Acknowledging that complaints will follow these outdoor dining activities, he set up an office to deal with potential complaints, Mediating Establishment and Neighbor Disputes (MEND NYC).

MEND NYC is overseen by the Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings and the Mayor’s Office of Nightlife at the Mayor’s Office of Media and Entertainment. Undoubtedly, a major complaint brought to MEND NYC would center on the intrusions of loud sounds from these outdoor eating establishments on nearby residents. Even before the pandemic, complaints about noise from restaurants and bars came into 311 regularly. Now with more openings of these establishments, we can expect additional calls about noise. Let me add that other complaints, e.g. trash disposal, sidewalk obstruction, are also addressed through mediation.

I had written earlier

206, 2021

Air pollution may damage cognition

June 2nd, 2021|

Photo credit: Jaybird licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

A recent report in Nature Aging is behind a paywall, so I am using this article about the report in Neuroscience News to discuss it. The study showed that short term exposure to air pollutants in an older male population in Boston impaired cognition as measured by the Global Cognitive Function test and the Mini Mental State Examination. Higher levels of air pollution were associated with worse cognitive performance, as measured by these tests. Aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appeared to help ameliorate these adverse effects.

Why am I writing about air pollution in a site about noise? Because there is a strong correlation between community noise levels and certain types of air pollution, specifically fine particulate matter from internal combustion engines, especially diesel engines. Aircraft engines also emit particulate matter.

Internal combustion engines and jet engines are noisy. Transportation noise is a major component of community noise exposure. Transportation noise is strongly correlated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. Transportation noise also disturbs people, interrupts concentration, impairs learning in schools, and decreases

106, 2021

SpaceX brings jobs–and noise–to small town Texas

June 1st, 2021|

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

Over the many years I have been involved with trying to lower the decibel level in our world, and many of my writings have focused on the growing din in urban communities. However, with respect to the situations in which I have served as an expert witness, I found myself speaking of noise pollution in Wyoming, Montana, Texas, and New Zealand. Thus, I am very aware that noise pollution is not an urban issue solely. Some of the people who have solicited my services as an expert witness have said they sought out quieter places to live in, never expecting a motocross raceway to be built near their homes or a farm nearby that would be turned into a late-night venue for social events. I have come to the conclusion that noise can follow you anywhere.

During the pandemic, I have read many articles that have noted that more birds can be seen in cities and more dolphins are visible in the ocean. Human-made noises do indeed impact adversely on the lives of other species that share this earth with us and with reduced noises during the pandemic,

2805, 2021

The COVID vaccine doesn’t cause sudden hearing loss

May 28th, 2021|

This photo by Airman 1st Class Anna Nolte is in the public domain

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

I’m a big advocate for preventing illness rather than treating it. Prevention is almost always both better and cheaper than treatment, which in turn is better and cheaper than rehabilitation in those cases where rehabilitation is possible.

I follow a healthy diet, exercise daily, and wear a hat and long sleeves if I’m in the California sun, regardless of how hot it is. I also get an annual influenza vaccine, and as soon as it was available got the COVID-19 vaccine. My affiliated hospital was offering the Pfizer vaccine, so that’s what I got, but I would have taken the first one available regardless of the manufacturer.

Unfortunately, there are a lot of vaccine skeptics who would rather run the risk of getting or spreading COVID than the extremely low risk of complications or side effects from vaccination. One of the possible adverse effects of vaccination may be sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

This report in JAMA Otolaryngology concludes that any cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss after COVID vaccination–something that has also been investigated in relationship to influenza vaccination–are not related to

2705, 2021

NYC mayoral candidate makes noise an issue

May 27th, 2021|

Photo credit: Thomas Good licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition

Shant Shahrigian’s article on New York City mayoral candidate Scott Stringer’s recent press conference to discuss city noise was titled “Quiet! NYC mayoral hopeful Scott Stringer promises to crack down on annoying noise.” As many of us already know, New York City Comptroller Stringer noted that “excessive decibels can cause high blood pressure, memory problems and other woes.” That is, noise is not a “niche” issue nor is it just “annoying.” Noise is hazardous to mental and physical health as the research linking noise to health has strongly demonstrated. All public officials seeking office in New York City should be aware of the hazards of noise to its city’s residents.

In addition to promising to ban nonessential helicopter flights, Stringer added that he would also work to “crack down on illegal dirt bikes” and advocate for quieter ambulance sirens. One hopes that Stringer’s comments will lead other candidates in the mayoral race to comment on their plans to reduce noise in a city that has seen its already high noise complaints rise even more during 2020. With

2605, 2021

More about cicadas: Are they making music or noise?

May 26th, 2021|

Photo credit: Cher Amio licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

In this wonderful essay, philosopher and musician David Rothenberg writes about the wonderful cacophony of cicadas.

Brood X is emerging on the east coast this month. Male cicadas sing loudly to attract their mates, although it turns out that female cicadas also make noise in response.

Rothenberg plays his clarinet to accompany the cicadas, and invites other musicians to join in.

He quotes the late avant-garde composer John Cage as saying, “i[]t’s music if you think it is,” but I’ll leave the decision about whether cicadas make music or noise up to you.

2505, 2021

NYC’s growing helicopter problem

May 25th, 2021|

Photo credit: Matthis Volquardsen from Pexels

by Arline L. Bronzaft, Ph.D., Board of Directors, GrowNYC, and Co-founder, The Quiet Coalition, and Melissa Elstein, Board of Directors, Stop the Chop NY/NJ

A recent article by Valeria Ricciulli, Curbed, examines New York City’s growing helicopter problem. Despite complaints about the “nonstop buzzing of helicopters,” which have “jumped by 130% between October 2019 and 2020,” residents exposed to intrusive helicopter noises have not seen successful actions taken by public officials nor the Federal Aviation Administration that would restrict “those helicopters buzzing around unregulated airspace.” Ricciulli notes that the helicopters are also dangerous, with 30 fatal helicopter wrecks in the city since 1982.

Helicopters occupying New York metropolitan airspace are dominated by tourism flights and commuter helicopters “zipping business executives to and from the Hamptons,” the local airports, and other locations. Yet, even with recent deadly helicopter crashes and voluminous noise complaints from residents, “no city or state regulation has been able to curb helicopter traffic.” Yes, a 2016 NYC industry agreement states that sightseeing helicopters based at the Downtown Manhattan Heliport cannot fly over land, nor on Sundays, and restricts those sightseeing tours to 30,000 flights per year, but this agreement does not

2405, 2021

Protect your children’s hearing

May 24th, 2021|

Photo credit: IXQUICK licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

This health column from the University of Kentucky communications office discusses protecting children’s hearing. They chose this topic because May is Better Hearing and Speech Month, sponsored by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

The advice is not new but is sound. And I congratulate the University of Kentucky for not citing the industrial-strength 85 decibel (dB) level as safe for children’s hearing. The oft-cited 85 dB noise level is derived from the 85 dBA (A-weighted decibels) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Recommended Exposure Level for occupational noise. It’s not safe for adults, and it’s certainly not safe for children’s shorter external auditory canals and developing auditory systems.

The NIOSH 85 dBA level allows an 8% risk of excess hearing loss in exposed workers. A noise exposure level that doesn’t protect factory workers, miners, and heavy equipment operators from hearing loss is far too high for a child’s delicate ears, which have to last a lifetime.

The best advice for protecting your children’s hearing? It’s simple: avoid loud noise exposure.

This means no use of headphones or earbuds,

2105, 2021

Just how loud will the cicadas be?

May 21st, 2021|

Photo credit: Martha Nelson licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

by Daniel Fink, MD, Chair, The Quiet Coalition

In many parts of the country, everyone is waiting for the emergence of Brood X cicadas. Cicadas have adopted an interesting survival strategy: They develop underground for 17 years and only emerge in such large numbers that their predators can’t eat them all during a short few week life span during which they mate and lay eggs.

The mating calls of male cicadas are noisy, 80-90 decibels. That’s somewhere in sound intensity between a vacuum cleaner and a gas-powered leaf blower.

As Marcus Schneck’s article in PennLive notes, this is loud enough to cause hearing loss, and certainly loud enough to interrupt conversations, disturb concentration, and impair sleep.

My only quibble with Schneck’s piece is his statement that “[t]he Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns that prolonged exposure to noise above 85 decibels can cause hearing loss and recommends limiting unprotected exposure to 100 decibels to 15 minutes.” In fact, in recent online information, the CDC states that “noise above 70 dB over a prolonged period of time may start to damage your hearing.“

That’s a

2005, 2021

Hearing loss crisis among musicians

May 20th, 2021|

by Jan L. Mayes, MSc, Audiologist

A recent article about the hearing loss crisis among musicians reports hearing loss as every musician’s worst nightmare and as devastating for a musician as losing a hand. Many professional musicians have permanent hearing problems from not protecting their hearing until after chronic tinnitus or distortion and muffling hearing loss have already started.

Some musicians say they were never told about hearing protection to preserve their hearing health. Others ignore the risk. A recent report by the British Tinnitus Association found over 50% of musicians with tinnitus said it was caused by noise exposure and almost 25% said they never wore hearing protection. But it’s never too late to start using high fidelity hearing protection or in-ear monitors to prevent further damage.

In terms of prevention, in my opinion, we need to reach people at much younger ages about the risk from intense music and audio levels. Every harmful sound exposure counts. People who notice temporary hearing changes or symptoms afterwards are most likely to develop permanent hearing loss and tinnitus with repeated unprotected exposures.

Long before people become professional musicians, children and teens are learning to play instruments, often play in bands or orchestras, go to

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